Glossary

DIRECTIONS:  Review the terms/words below.  Then, test your knowledge by playing one or all of the games below...

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Acrobat

Special software used to read Portable Document Files (PDF).


Adware

Computer software that displays advertisements.

 

Application Learning

Also called an app, it is computer software created for a particular task or tasks; it is increasingly used to mean software that is downloaded for use on cell phones; it also refers to web-based programs that run in browsers.


Asynchronous

A student-centered teaching method that uses online learning resources to facilitate information sharing outside the constraints of time and place among a network of people.


Avatar

A digital representation of an individual shown along with a screen name, typically in a virtual reality environment or on a social networking site.

 

Backlinks

Incoming links to a website or web page.

 

Bias

A personal and sometimes unreasoned judgment or prejudice.

 

Bit

Short for binary digit; the smallest unit of information that a computer can process.

 

Bloatware

Computer programs loaded onto a device by an Original Equipment Manufacturer designed to cell you new services; takes of much needed space on your computer’s hard drive.

 

Blog (short for weblog)

A website that is regularly updated and operates like a journal with writing, opinions, experiences, photos, videos, and links to other information; can include several pages and multiple functionalities like those found in traditional websites.


Bookmark

To add/record the address of a website to your browser so you don't have to enter it every time you want to visit the associated site. 


Boot

To start up a computer and load the operating system.


Broadband

High speed signals sent across a wide range of electromagnetic frequencies; high speed connectivity; a minimum downloading speed of 4 megabits per second and uploading speed of 1 megabit per second.

 

Browser

A program used to view HTML documents (pages found on the Internet); examples include Chrome, Internet Explorer, and Mozilla Firefox;  software that allows for navigating the web; it is different from a search engine in that it provides a window in which to search, but does not search itself; most modern browsers include a search tool provided by search engines allowing you to access search engines directly through the browser.

 

Bug

Errors in programs.


Byte

Short for binary term; composed of a string of 8 bits.


Cache

A place on your hard drive that keeps words and pictures from web pages so that when you visit them more than once, they load quickly.

 

Cell Tower

A site containing antennas and other electronic communications equipment, usually in a high place, that makes up a cell in a cellular network.

 

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

A component inside computers that carries out the functions of a computer.  Sometime referred to as the brain of a computer.

 

Citation

An act of quoting providing the specific source of material.

 

Cloud Computing

A computer network that allows for software and hardware to be place on it, thereby removing the need to have them stored on your computer.

 

Cookie

A packet of data sent by an Internet server to a browser which is returned by the browser each time it subsequently accesses the same server used to identify the user or track their access to the server.

 

Copyright

Exclusive rights given to someone who creates original work; the individual is protected for his or her lifetime and 75 years after his or her death.

 

Coverage Area

Refers to the area in which a service provider offers its communication service.

 

Credible

Offering reason to be believed.

 

Cursor

Small line or box (sometimes blinking) that appears on the monitor screen.  It allows you to see where you are adding text or working on your document.


Cyber bullying

Using technology to harm others through deliberate, repeated and hostile attacks.


Cyberspace

Another term for the Internet.

 

Data Package

What the mobile phone company charges for use of the Internet of your smartphone or your ISP charges for your Internet speed you receive on your computers.

 

Database

Information stored in a file (e.g. names, addresses, etc...).


Debug

Fixing problems in computers or software.

 

Dead zone

An area where a mobile phone does not receive a signal.

 

Digital addiction

A type of addiction characterized by a dependence on the use of digital technologies such as cell phones and computers.


Digital literacy

Using digital technology communication tools and/or networks to access, manage, integrate, evaluate, create, and communicate information.

 

Digital security certificate

A certificate given to websites that verifies whether a website is secure or not.


Directory

A list of the files you have stored on your computer.

 

Domain name

An identification string of letters and numbers that defines a realm of administrative autonomy and represents a specific Internet Protocol (IP);  domain names consist of 2-5 components (e.g. www.sdcoe.net).


Domain Name System (DNS)

The phone book of the Internet.

 

Downloading

Receiving data, such as a music or video file, from a server or another computer system.

 

E-mail

Electronic mail sent between computer networks.

 

E-reader

A device or computer program used for reading electronic books.

 

Embed

Incorporate code into the body of a file or document (such as  PowerPoint presentation or a web page) in order to insert functionality from one service into another (e.g. put a YouTube video into a website).


Emoticon

The use of letter and punctuation in a message that indicates the emotion of the text (e.g., :0) to mean happy).

 

Encryption

The process of encoding messages (or information) in such a way that eavesdroppers or hackers cannot read it, but that authorized parties can.


Extension

1.    The suffix at the end of a file name (e.g. .doc, .xls, .pdf, .jpg, .mp3).

2.    A computer program that extends the functionality of a web browser.

 

Fair use

A limitation and exception to the exclusive right granted by copyright law to the author of a creative work.


Firewall

Software or hardware-based network security system that controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic by analyzing the data packets and determining whether they should be allowed through or not, based on a rule set.


Folksonomy

A system of classification by managing tags to annotate and categorize content.


Hashtag

A symbol (#) used to mark keywords or topics in a Tweet.

 

HTTP (Hyper Text Tranfer Protocol)

A protocol or group of rules and functions that is used to transfer data over the World Wide Web; it is required before a web address in a URL, and is indicated by /”http://”

.

HTTPS (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure)

The same as HTTP a protocol or group of rules and functions that is used to transfer data over the World Wide Web and is secure; it is used for websites that handle sensitive information that would require greater security, such as payments and bank account information.

 

Hacked

Getting hacked means that your computer or computer network has been broken into without your permission.

 

Hard disk drive

A computer device that reads, writes, and stores digital data.

 

Hardware

The physical parts of a computer.


HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language)

A standardized system for tagging text files to achieve font, color, graphic, and hyperlink effects on the WWW.

 

Hosting services

A service, such as web hosting, that is usually operated by a company in order to provide access to the Internet through servers.

 

I.C.T.

Information Communication Technologies


IP address

A string of numbers that indicates the location of a computer or server’ commonly referred to as a web address or URL; usually confused with ‘domain name’; an example may be 19.283.475.619.

 

Identity theft

A form of fraud where one person assumes the identity of another person.

 

Intellectual property

Property created from an original thought or idea.

 

Interference

Refers to any disruption or alternation of a signal in mobile phones.

 

Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)

A protocol for accessing your email from a shared server.  The mail remains on your local computer as well as on the shared server allowing you to access your email from any Internet-connected device.

 

Internet Service Provider (ISP)

A company or organization that offers a service, such as web, cable television, or phone access.

 

Location-based service

A service provided through mobile device networks and accessed by mobile devices which use location to provide information on various places like restaurants, offices, museums, schools, etc...

 

MMS

An abbreviation for multimedia messaging service, which allows for sending video, audio, pictures, ringtones, and any other media through a cell phone.

 

MP3

A common audio format for playback and storage of music on digital audio players.

 

Malware

Computer software designed to harm a computer.


Meme

An idea, behavior or style that spreads from person to person within a culture.

 

Memory

Any data or information in a computer; it is commonly used to refer to read-access memory (RAM) which is temporary and used to operate software; at times, it can also refer to the amount of disk space available on a computer.


Micro-blogging

A form of blogging which limits message content to around 140 characters or less (e.g. using Twitter or Plurk).

 

Mobile Switching Center

A network of computers that route digital information sent from cellular towers to other systems of communication like the public telephone lines.

 

Moore’s Law

Suggests that the number of transistors that can be placed in an integrated circuit will double every 18 months, making computer speeds increase exponentially; this law is related to other trends in digital technology, like how much memory can go on a hard drive.

 

Multimedia

Content and media that combines different content forms, such as texts, audio, animation, and still images.


Omnibox

The field in some browsers wherein you may enter either a search argument or a domain name or an IP address (not available on all browsers).

 

Open source

A way in which software is developed that allows access to the source code of an application or software and is free to update and use.

 

Operating system (OS)

A group of software programs that provide instructions to a computer so that it may operate.

 

Path

The name of a file or directory that specifies a unique location in a file system (e.g. www.cnn.com/kidnews)

 

Piracy

The unauthorized reproduction or copying of music, video, or literature without proper compensation or permission.

 

Plug-in

Something you can add to a software application to enhance its abilities.


Podcast (a.k.a. Netcast)

A multimedia digital file made available on the Internet for downloading to a portable media player, computer, etc...

 

POPmail

Post Office Protocol mail; refers to email software on your computer that sends and receives mail via a shared computer’s electronic post office; POPmail software on your computer logs into a server and transfers received mail from your account to your computer (thereby erasing the mail from the shared computer).


Power Cycling

The act of turning a piece of equipment, usually a computer, off and then on again. Reasons for power cycling include having an electronic device reinitialize its configuration or recover from an unresponsive state of its mission critical functionality, such as in a crash or hang situation.


Presentation

A series of digital slides used to display information.

 

Programming

The process of designing, writing, testing, debugging, and maintaining the source code of computer programs.


Proxy Server

A computer that acts as an intermediary for requests from other computers seeking resources from other servers.  Often used to bypass web content filtering systems. 


QR Code

Quick Response code; a type of two-dimensional bar code, consisting of black modules in a square pattern on a white background, that can hold a large amount of any kind of data.

 

RAM (Random Access Memory)

The main memory of a computer; the more RAM a computer has, the more efficiently/quickly it’s processor (CPU) will operate.

 

Roaming

The extension of service or coverage in a wireless telecommunications system.

 

ROM (Read-Only Memory)

Memory used by your computer to run essential components of your system (e.g booting up the system); can only be altered with firmware updates; not accessible by users.


Router

A device that forwards data packets between computer networks.  It is connected to two or more data lines from different networks. When a data packet comes in one of the lines, the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey.


RSS (Really Simply Syndication)

A standardized system for the distribution of content, esp. news, from an online publisher to Internet users.

 

Scheme

The top level of a uniform resource locator naming structure (e.g. http: or file:).


Screencasting

A digital recording of computer screen output, also known as a video screen capture, often containing audio narration.

 

SMS

Also known as short message service; it is a text messaging service for cell phones.

 

SSL

An abbreviation for Secure Sockets Layer; it is a protocol that provides security when communicating on the Internet.

 

Search engine

A computer program that locates information on the Web.

 

Server farm

A cluster of computer servers used when there is the need for larger server capacity and capability.

 

Server

A computer or series of computers that link other computers together and often store important information.

 

Sexting

The act of sending inappropriate sexual material, usually text or images, between cell phones.

 

Signal strength

Refers to the strength of a connection over a wireless (radio) telecommunication system.

 

Smartphone

A cell phone that is designed to perform various computer applications including, but not limited to, e-mail, browsing the web, playing video games, playing music, and watching videos.

 

Social media

Media that use Internet and cell phone applications to interact, collaborate and create content.

 

Social network

A website designed for groups of people who publish their own information and share it with others such as friends, family, co-workers, etc...

 

Software

A group of computer programs that give instructions to a computer so that it functions.


Spam

E-mail that is sent to large groups of people who didn’t sign up to receive it; spam often requests information or money or may contain viruses.

 

Spreadsheet

A computer application that simulates a paper accounting worksheet.

 

Spyware

A type of malware that unknowingly collects information from a computer.

 

Tablet

A highly portable computer shaped like slate or pad of paper, featuring a touchscreen.

 

Tag (metadata)

A keyword or term assigned to a piece of information (i.e. digital image, website) that describes the information and lets others find it using search tools.

 

Template

A standard display design used in blogs to provide a structure for information to be viewed.

 

Textspeak

Abbreviations and slang commonly used to shorten a text or instant message, like using “?s” for “questions.”

 

Top Level Domain (TLD)

The last part of a domain name (e.g. .com, .net, .us, .ru)


Tweet

A posting on the social networking website Twitter.


URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

A string of characters that references an Internet resource (e.g. www.sdcoe.net).

 

Uploading

Sending data, such as a music or video file, from a local computer system to another computer system or server.

 

Viral

An image, video, or other media that is rapidly circulated on the Internet.

 

Virus

A type of malware that replicates itself and spreads to other computers.

 

WWW

Called “World Wide Web” or simply, “the web,” it is a portion of the Internet that can be used through a web browser.

 

Web 2.0

Refers to applications on the web that allow users to interact through user-generated content, design, and collaboration; includes the functions of social media websites.

 

Webcam

A video camera for computers typically used to provide real-time video footage.

 

Wi-Fi
Networking technology that allows computer devices such as personal computers, laptops, and cell phones to communicate over a wireless signal.

 

Wiki

A website that allows users to add and edit interlinking web pages.

 

Word processing

A computer application used for the production (including composition, editing, formatting, and possibly printing) of any sort of printable material.